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Encyclopedia of the Unexplained

Explore outside the Box! Voices in the Dark, Mysterious Phenomena, UFO's, 2012, and Other Bizarre Events

Subtle Bodies And Dark Matter



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Is dark matter and energy only confined to galactic scales? Are there not massive amounts of dark matter particles raining down on Earth? Has this influenced life and consciousness on Earth? Dark matter does not emit electromagnetic waves that our scientific instruments can detect but is it possible for some of us to "see" objects composed of dark matter intermittently by using the sensory systems in our higher energy "subtle bodies"? Is the "subtle matter and energy" described in the popular metaphysical literature the same as the "dark matter and energy" of physicists?

Long before physicists stumbled onto invisible 'dark matter and energy', metaphysicists had been experimenting and observing them using the sensory systems of their higher energy bodies. They generally called it 'subtle matter and energy' but it went by different names in different places; the most popular being 'qi', 'prana' and 'kundalini'. 'Qi' is a general term for 'energy' in Mandarin; 'prana' and 'kundalini' are terms that have similar meanings in Hindu metaphysics. This invisible energy has not only been observed by those in the East, it has also been studied in the West. In the West the term 'L' energy is sometimes used. This 'L' energy or 'life energy' has the same general meaning as qi and prana. Science has been unable to measure qi, prana, kundalini or L-energy directly - just as it finds it difficult to measure dark matter or energy directly.




Cosmology from... Consciousness

I guarantee you will see the universe in a way you've never seen it before! The following alternative cosmology articles came from a period of over thirty-seven years of deep contemplation on the nature of reality starting in 1975. They contain my best insights on creation including a compendium of compatible alternative cosmological concepts regarding the formation of the universe and the creation of reality. Most scientific thinking today still revolves around the idea that reality is structured independent of our consciousness and that all thoughts, feelings and consciousness are strictly artifacts of the human brain. However, a vast assortment of life's deepest mysteries could never, ever be solved by assuming that consciousness has nothing to do with "external" reality.





Is dark matter the same as subtle matter?

Obviously both dark matter and subtle matter are invisible to most of us who use the sensory systems of our physical-biomolecular body almost exclusively during this lifetime. However, convince yourself that they are the same by comparing a sample of properties of dark matter with subtle matter, below. (The list is not exhaustive. More and more correlations are cropping-up as we study the subject in greater detail.)

1. There is Mutual Affinity between Dark/Subtle and Ordinary Matter

According to science reporter Robert Britt, studies show that on large cosmic scales dark matter and ordinary matter in galaxies trace out the same shapes and structures. "They become sculpted into nearly identical sheets and filaments, with vast expanses of near-nothingness in between." According to metaphysicist Charles Leadbeater there is an affinity between "astral" matter (a form of subtle matter) and physical matter He says that astral matter is attracted to physical matter and moulds into its shape as the physical-biomolecular body grows. Astral matter follows its every change, 99% of which is compressed within the periphery of the physical-biomolecular body. Conversely, there are also observations which confirm that ordinary matter falls under dark matter's influence. There is, in fact, a mutual affinity between dark/subtle matter and ordinary matter.

2. Dark/Subtle Matter provides the Invisible Scaffolding, Mould or Template for Ordinary Matter

Physicist Chung Pei-Ma, an associate professor of astronomy at UC Berkeley, concludes that "the ghost universe of dark matter is a template for the visible universe". According to Richard Massey, a dark matter researcher at the California Institute of Technology, dark matter condensed first. The gravity of dark matter then pulled ordinary matter into it. "The normal matter flows gravitationally into this sort of dark matter scaffolding," Massey says "and is constructed within that into the galaxy and the stars we see today." According to scientists, dark matter and its gravity shaped bright matter in a manner similar to how the texture of the ground shapes puddles of rainwater. This basically means dark matter acts as a mould for ordinary matter to accumulate and be shaped. Dark matter has been regarded by scientists as something that gives structure to ordinary matter. This means it allows ordinary matter to maintain its form.

Barbara Brennan, former NASA engineer and now world-renowned energy healer, says that the "human energy field" has an organizing effect on matter and builds forms; any changes in the material world are preceded by a change in this field. Metaphysicists, such as Brennan, have been insisting for years that these invisible fields form the templates for the formation of the biomolecular body. Metaphysicist Leonard Ravitz says that the invisible electric fields serve as an electronic matrix to keep the corporeal form in shape. In other words they provide the structure to our physical-biomolecular body to maintain its form.

Brennan observes through her "higher sense perception" that an "energy field matrix" in the shape of a leaf is projected by a plant prior to the growth of a leaf, and then the leaf grows into that already existing form. In other words, the energy field acts as a mould for the growth of the visible leaf. In Raymond Burr's experiments with plant seedlings, he discovered electrical fields which resembled the eventual adult plant. He also discovered that salamanders possessed an energy field shaped like an adult salamander, and that this blueprint even existed in an unfertilized egg. Young salamanders were surrounded by an electrical field of the same size as an adult salamander. He also found that electrical fields surrounding sprouts did not correspond to the form of the seeds but to the form of the grown plant. According to Leadbeater, the (invisible) "etheric double" is actually built in advance of the human fetus. "Clairvoyants sometimes see this doll-like little figure hovering about, and afterwards within the body of the mother", he says.

3. Dark/Subtle Matter generates Superficial Forms

Physicists Chung-Pei Ma and Edmund Bertschinger of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) say, based on computer models of how dark matter would move under the force of gravity, that dark matter should form smaller clumps that look superficially like the galaxies and globular clusters we see in our luminous (ordinarily visible) universe.

Metaphysicists, such as Leadbeater, say that the etheric and astral bodies look superficially like the biomolecular body but they operate differently, being based on electromagnetic rather than largely biochemical processes as in the biomolecular body.




Sacred Geometry... the Design of Creation

Sacred geometry illustrates the unity of life in our world like no other field of study can. The sacred geometry symbol, Flower of Life, for instance, adorned churches, cathedrals, temples and pyramids for centuries with its amazing beauty, while bridging all manner of religions, cultures and times. There seems to be something deeply natural, spiritual and esthetically pleasing about the Flower of Life. From both a mystical and analytical direction of approach, the concepts of sacred geometry have always been quite fascinating. Sometimes, those interested in one aspect of sacred geometry would attempt to invalidate those studying another aspect of it. Sacred geometry can be either taught for scientific reasons or enjoyed for mystical and spiritual enrichment.





4. Dark/Subtle Matter Astronomical Objects Outnumber Ordinary Objects

Ma and Bertschinger of MIT say that computer simulations of the evolution of dark matter predict far more clumps of dark matter than ordinarily visible luminous matter in a specified region. According to Ma, "Our galaxy, the Milky Way, has about a dozen satellites, but in simulations we see thousands of satellites of dark matter."

Mystic Paramahansa Yogananda said in 1946 that "just as many physical suns and stars roam in space, so there are also countless astral suns and moons." In 1957 metaphysicist Norman Pearson noted that so far (in Science) we have only considered physical planets; but there are also planets composed of 'super-physical' matter. In fact, he says, "The super-physical planets form the greater part of the planetary population of the Solar System."

5. Dark/Subtle Matter Particles Can Pass through You

Compare the description of dark matter particles, called WIMPs, by a physicist with the globules of L-energy, described by metaphysicist Paul Pearsall:

"If there are as many WIMPs [i.e. dark matter particles] as would be required to explain the motions of galaxies, large numbers are whizzing through the room you are sitting in, and through your own body, without you noticing" - John Gribbin, Physicist.

"It [i.e. globules of subtle L-energy] passes unchanged through any known substance and nothing shields or deflects it" - Paul Pearsall, Metaphysicist "We don't know what the remaining 90% of matter is, but this 'dark matter' differs from ordinary matter in being able to pass right through both ordinary matter and other dark matter, just like ghosts are supposed to pass through stone walls." - Theoretical Astrophysics Group, University of Oxford

Ron Cowen says, "Evidence indicates that when speeding fragments of dark matter meet, they don't collide as other matter do but pass right through each other, ghostlike." Observations by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory suggest that if dark matter particles do collide, they do so relatively weakly. In other words, they will not be appreciably affected on collision.

Leadbeater noted (almost a century ago) that subtle astral bodies can and do constantly interpenetrate one another fully, without in the least injuring one another. "People on the astral plane," according to him, "can and do pass through one another constantly, and through fixed astral objects." When passing through another subtle astral body for a short time, the two astral bodies are not appreciably affected. However, if the interpenetration lasts for some time, Leadbeater says that they do affect one another "as far as the rates of vibration [i.e. frequencies] are concerned."

This is not surprising, as (according to plasma metaphysics) subtle bodies are electromagnetic bodies. Hence, when two subtle bodies pass through each other slowly there would be electromagnetic effects - such as changes in frequencies and distribution of charges over the subtle body. David Spergel of Princeton University, commenting on the findings by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory, is of the view that "the findings do not rule out interactions, other than gravitational effects, among dark matter particles." Hence bodies composed of dark matter particles can interact with one another electromagnetically. The ability of subtle bodies to pass through other subtle bodies and objects betrays the fact that they are composed of low-density dark matter.

6. Dark/Subtle Matter is of Low Density

According to scientists, the average dark matter density in the Solar System is much lower (a trillion trillion times lower) than that of rocks, water and other substances typically found on Earth.

Out-of-body researcher, Robert Monroe, observes that the 'Second Body' can penetrate walls and concludes that, "Anything that can interpenetrate a wall must have very little density." Metaphysicist Leadbeater observed (around 1910) that astral matter is only relatively solid. Almost a century ago he said, "The particles in the densest astral matter are further apart, relative to their size, than even gaseous particles. Hence, it is easier for two of the densest astral bodies to pass through each other than it would be for the lightest gas to diffuse itself in the air." In other words, astral bodies are composed of "collisionless" dark matter.

7. Dark/Subtle Matter rapidly increases in Density towards the Center

A study using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey provides the most direct evidence yet that galaxies reside at the centre of giant, dark matter concentrations that may be 50 times larger than the visible galaxy itself! The 'lambda cold dark matter' model is a popular scientific model that predicts that dark matter rapidly increases in density towards the centre of a galaxy. Astrophysicists modeling the motion of dark matter say that each clump had a density that peaked in the centre and fell-off toward the edges in the exact same way, independent of its size. Observations with the Chandra X-ray Observatory support the cold dark matter model. To test the model, researchers used Chandra's sharp optics to measure the temperature and intensity of the hot, X-ray-emitting gas in a galaxy cluster some 4 billion light-years from Earth. The data obtained by John S Arabadjis and Mark W Bautz of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, along with Gordon P Garmire of Pennsylvania State University in State College, found that the density is greater the closer it is to the centre of the cluster.

Leadbeater reported in 1910 that the densest aggregation of subtle astral matter is within the periphery of the physical body of a man. Similarly, he said, in the case of the Earth, the greater part of its astral matter is gathered together within the limits of its ordinarily visible physical sphere. The density profile of subtle astral matter is consistent with the density profile of dark matter observed by the Chandra X-Ray Observatory.

8. Dark/Subtle Matter is "Weakly Interacting"

Physicists say dark matter 'interacts weakly' with ordinarily visible matter. They could well have said that there are 'subtle interactions' between dark and ordinarily visible matter. The term 'subtle' used by metaphysicists is not much different in meaning from 'weakly interacting' used by physicists to describe the nature of interactions between ordinary and dark matter.

9. Dark/Subtle Matter is Composed of High Energy Particles

Dark matter particles include supersymmetric objects and particles. According to scientists, these are higher mass-higher energy particles that have not been detected by our current low energy particle accelerators because of their high energies.

Subtle matter (in traditional metaphysical theories) is considered to be made up of highly energetic particles which generally becomes visible (as objects) after some training in meditation or similar exercises. In Hindu metaphysics, we find references to not only the "anu" (i.e. standard physical particles) but "param-anu" (which are super-physical particles). Valerie Hunt, Professor Emeritus at UCLA and internationally recognized authority in the area of energy field medicine, says that "even ancient Hindu literature asserts that the energy body possesses a higher vibration [or frequency] than normal matter-energy." Modern 'seers' were unanimous in their opinion that subtle bodies consist of "as yet undiscovered higher frequency matter and energy" and have mass - long before any widespread awareness of dark matter or supersymmetry theories.

10. Dark/Subtle Matter forms Webs

According to Britt, scientific studies show that both ordinary and dark matter work in concert to build a web of filaments in space, with dense junctions where galaxies cluster together. The resulting structures, he says, look something like spider webs.

In 1904 metaphysicist Annie Besant reported that, "During human antenatal life a single thread weaves a network, a shimmering web of inconceivable fineness and delicate beauty, with minute meshes. Within the meshes of this web the coarser particles of the bodies are built together." The Chinese acupuncture map of meridians in the physical-etheric body also resembles a web of energy. According to Brennan, the physical-etheric body is "like a sparkling web of light beams". To a clairvoyant, "the etheric body consists of a definite structure of lines of force and sparks of bluish white light move along these lines" she says. This web has been discussed in more detail in the author's article Acupuncture Meridians and the Cosmic Spider Web.

11. Dark/Subtle Matter is Subject to Gravity

"Thanks to a new analysis by physicists at Caltech and the University of Toronto, we can expect that lumps of dark matter gravitationally attract each other in just the same way that lumps of normal matter (like you and the Earth, for instance) attract each other." - Science Daily, October 2006

"Astral matter [i.e. dark matter] gravitates towards the center of the Earth, just as physical matter does." - Charles Leadbeater, Metaphysicist, 1910

According to Brennan 'aura' appears to have weight. Monroe believes that the 'Second Body' has weight and is subject to the gravitational force. (Weight is, of course, an effect of the gravitational force.) It appears that what was discovered by Science in 2006 was observed by Leadbeater almost a century ago and also by many other experimental metaphysicists.




Spiritual Energy and the Pranic Principle

There seems to be a universal field of prana in our atmosphere and throughout all of space and time in the Universe. Prana is a Sanskrit word meaning "life" in the context of a "life force" or "vital energy" that fills all living beings with vibrant health and all of nature with a living essence. Prana seems to correspond with the much subtler parts of the Universe such as the spiritual realms. There are many, many names for and aspects of this substance, just there are many names for God, and many aspects of God. Even mainstream science has long postulated the existence of a kind of "ether" that must be responsible for the transmission of light. Later on this "ether" was more accurately defined as some sort of multidimensional geometry of space in a vibrational state.





Conclusion

There is only one inescapable conclusion: The dark matter and energy of physicists is the subtle matter and energy of metaphysicists. Sooner or later qi, prana and kundalini must be accounted for by Science under dark matter and energy - after all they are, by definition, dark matter and energy. It is also important to note that the metaphysical evidence strongly suggests that certain people can see this dark matter (using the sensory-cognitive systems of their higher energy subtle bodies) which is ordinarily invisible to most of us.

Copyright 2007 Jay Alfred

Jay Alfred is the author of three books on a new field called 'plasma metaphysics'. The books include 'Our Invisible Bodies', 'Brains and Realities' and 'Between the Moon and Earth'. Plasma metaphysics is the application of plasma and dark matter physics to the study of our high energy subtle bodies and their corresponding environments. These bodies include the 'bioplasma' bodies and 'astral' bodies found in the metaphysical literature. Plasma metaphysics provides an internally consistent framework for the study of these bodies against the backdrop of modern physics. The books are available at Amazon.com.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Jay_Alfred



Earth's Dark Matter Halo



Galaxies have gigantic halos composed of dark matter. Considering the trillions of dark matter particles that pass through the Earth constantly and the clouds of dark matter in our vicinity, the question arises - Is Earth sitting inside a dark matter halo? If so, we would be living inside this halo.

We now know that galaxies have gigantic halos composed of dark matter. Does Earth also possess such a halo? If so, we would be living inside this halo. Based on research so far, it is highly probable that Earth does possess a low density halo of dark matter because there are numerous sources for Earth to receive and attract dark matter into its gravitational influence. We also know that there is a mutual affinity between dark and ordinary matter throughout the universe.

Dark Matter within the Solar System

Our Solar System and the Earth sits inside the dark matter halo of our galaxy, the Milky Way. D Lin, a University of California astronomer, calculates that our galaxy's halo of dark matter is equivalent to 600 to 800 billion solar masses, compared to the only 100 billion solar masses of visible matter. As our Solar System orbits the galaxy at a speed of almost 220km per second, it sweeps through the invisible sea of dark matter particles in the galaxy. Every kilogram of matter on Earth scatters as many as a thousand WIMPs (i.e. dark matter particles) per day.

The Solar System, itself, is sitting in an interstellar cloud of dark matter. The existence of the cloud and its geometry can be deduced from its effect on the spectra of nearby stars and cosmic rays. Priscilla Frisch of the University of Chicago calculates that our Solar System first encountered the cloud (moving at right angles to it) between 2,000 and 8,000 years ago.

Dark Matter Clouds Passing through Earth

Jrg Diemand, a physicist at the University of California in Santa Cruz, US, and colleagues say that computations suggest that small clouds of dark matter, which could be detected by future space missions, pass through Earth on a regular basis. He says that perhaps a million billion of them drift around our galaxy's dark matter halo. These clouds float through Earth every 10,000 years in an encounter lasting about 50 years, according to Diemand. However, they do not affect the (physical) Earth to any appreciable effect. Their relatively low densities mean they could only nudge our planet out of its normal orbit by less than a millionth of a meter per second.

Dark Matter Particles Blasted-Out from the Sun

According to researchers from the University of Oxford (as reported in the New Scientist journal), the Sun is harboring a vast reservoir of dark matter. Astrophysicists Ilidio Lopes and Joe Silk reasoned that passing dark matter particles would be captured by the gravity of heavy bodies like the Sun. In addition to heat and light, the Sun constantly emits low density plasma of charged electrons and protons called the 'solar wind,' which blasts out from the Sun in all directions at very high speeds to fill the entire Solar System and beyond. The solar wind and the much higher energy particles ejected by solar flares can have dramatic effects on the Earth ranging from power line surges and radio interference to the beautiful and mesmerizing aurora borealis. The composition of this solar wind has been largely analyzed by Science, up to now, to consist of only ordinary matter in the form of plasma. If there is a large dark matter reservoir in the Sun, as certain scientists are convinced, it is a logical next step to expect dark matter particles captured by the Sun from various sources to be also blown out of the Sun in its solar wind -- just like ordinary matter particles. Trillions of dark matter particles from the Sun would be hitting Earth every minute.

Dark Matter Particles Raining Down from Dwarf Galaxy

Astrophysicist Heidi Newberg at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute and her colleagues suggest that dark matter may be raining down on Earth from the dwarf galaxy "Sagittarius". For eons, the Milky Way has been absorbing and tearing apart Sagittarius, which is about one-tenth the size of the Milky Way. Newberg and other astronomers recently discovered two "tails" or streams of stars flowing-out from Sagittarius. The streams are believed to also contain dark matter particles. Our Solar System sits in one of these streams. We are therefore stuck in the middle of a fast-moving stream of dark matter particles, billions passing through every square meter of the Earth (and our bodies) each second at speeds of over a million kilometers per hour. Day-in and day-out, countless random dark matter particles rain down upon the Earth and through our bodies undetected.

Density of Earth's Dark Matter Halo

If trillions of dark matter particles are passing through ordinary matter - the Earth and our bodies every few seconds then it would not be difficult for Earth to capture these particles under its gravitational influence. Dark matter could also be already present during the formation of the Solar System - so that ordinary and dark matter worked together to form our Solar System. Perhaps the Pioneer anomaly was also caused by the presence of clumps of dark matter in the Solar System, as conjectured by Marcus Chown.

However, it appears (ignoring the effects of any dark energy) that whatever dark matter is present in the Solar System, it must be low in density. Firstly, this is because the planets comply with Newton's gravity laws - unlike the stars at the edge of galaxies. (Dark energy has a repulsive gravitational effect. To what extent this would neutralize the attractive gravitational force of dark matter within the Solar System is a matter of conjecture.) Secondly, the density is low based on extrapolations of the density of dark matter in the local halo - which is roughly 0.3 GeV/cm3. The Earth-Sun distance is roughly 1.5 X 10^13 cm. So the amount of dark matter enclosed within Earth's orbit is approximately 10^40 GeV. For comparison, the Sun's mass is about 10^57 GeV. So the dark matter enclosed is 10^-17 of the mass of the Sun. It therefore has a negligible effect on the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. Based on these estimates, the average dark matter density is much lower (a trillion trillion times lower) than that of rocks, water and other substances typically found on Earth.

Is this Density Understated?

The numerous sources of dark matter particles suggest that there could be a local excess of dark matter in our Solar System over and above the galactic background. However, since the orbits of the planets comply with Newton's gravity laws very closely, the excess cannot be significant (barring the effects of any dark energy).

However, Newton's gravity laws require the mass of the Earth to be input. This mass is computed based on the gravitational acceleration measured at different places on Earth. This assumes from the start that the acceleration is due to only ordinary matter. The contribution of any dark matter on Earth has been ignored. A similar assumption is made when computing the mass of the Sun and the other planets. Scientists have speculated that there could be a large reservoir of dark matter within Earth. David Peat says that the best calculations suggest that our Earth could contain as much as 10 per cent shadow matter. Shadow matter (consisting of supersymmetric particles and objects) is generally considered to be the same as dark matter (which also consists of supersymmetric particles and objects).

Halos of dark matter, as large as our Solar System and with the mass of the Earth, were the first structures to form in the universe, according to calculations from scientists at the University of Zurich. If we could allow 10 per cent of the Earth's mass to be in the form of dark matter, this would mean a halo one-tenth the size of the Solar System - this is really huge relative to the size of the visible Earth. The visible Earth would seem like a little stone sitting inside this gigantic halo.

Implications

Based on the above discussion, there is no doubt that there is dark matter in the Solar System and on Earth. What are the implications? If we are living within a dark matter halo and there is mutual affinity between dark and ordinary matter, do objects on Earth (including our physical bodies) possess low density halos of dark matter? Does dark matter also play a part in the formation of our visible bodies just as it probably did in the formation of the visible Solar System? Can these low density halos organize themselves into life-forms (just like physical matter), survive the death of the physical bodies and evolve independently of life-forms composed of ordinarily visible (or measurable) physical matter?

According to plasma metaphysics, a significant amount of dark matter is in the form of a (magnetic) plasma of super (i.e. supersymmetric) particles. See the author's article on Dark Plasma. A low density gas of dark matter particles (which has no electrical properties) probably would not have allowed the development of life-forms composed of dark matter. However, plasma consists of electrically conductive soups of charged particles that respond collectively to electromagnetic forces and are overall (quasi) neutral. Renowned plasma physicist David Bohm was surprised to find that once electrons were in a plasma, they stopped behaving like individuals and started behaving as if they were part of a larger and interconnected whole. He later remarked that he frequently had the impression that the sea of electrons in a plasma was in some sense alive. Unlike particles within atoms, particles in magnetic plasma have long-range effects and correlations; and each particle has an electric field. In other words, the effects of the field become dominant. The invisible spaces between the widely dispersed particles in a low density plasma are not empty - they contain electric fields and dynamic magnetic field lines which twist and turn - generating complex dynamics in plasma. There is a network of filamentary currents in plasma.

Hence, even a low density plasma of (supersymmetric, massive) dark matter particles in the Solar System and on Earth could have significant effects on the formation of the Earth and our physical bodies because of its electromagnetic field properties.

Copyright Jay Alfred 2007

Jay Alfred is the author of three books on a new field called "plasma metaphysics". The books include Our Invisible Bodies, Brains and Realities and Between the Moon and Earth. Plasma metaphysics is the application of plasma and dark matter physics to the study of our high energy subtle bodies and their corresponding environments. These bodies include the "bioplasma" bodies and "astral" bodies found in the metaphysical literature. Plasma metaphysics provides an internally consistent framework for the study of these bodies against the backdrop of modern physics. The books are available at Amazon online bookstores.

Article Source: http://EzineArticles.com/?expert=Jay_Alfred



Dark Matter - Plasma of Super Particles

Supersymmetric Plasma

It is postulated by Dark Plasma Theory (formerly described as "plasma metaphysics') that supersymmetric bulk matter or dark matter, unlike bulk matter of Standard Model particles in our universe, is composed of heavy negatively and positively charged particles that are similar in mass. Supersymmetric bulk matter would be composed of matter that is analogous to "plasma". Instead of a plasma consisting of light electrons and heavy protons, however, this plasma will consist of superparticles of similar mass.

The existence of positively and negatively charged particles of similar mass is not surprising. For example, the positively-charged positron, the anti-particle of the electron, has a similar mass to the negatively-charged electron. Also, included within the Standard Model are two types of W particles - the W+ and W- bosons (i.e. "force-particles"). The particles have electric charges of +1 and -1, respectively, and have a similar mass of 80.4 GeV/c2, which makes them almost 100 times as massive as the proton and heavier than entire atoms of iron. Each particle is the antiparticle of the other.

Therefore it is not inconceivable that there could be positively and negatively charged superparticles with similar mass. These superparticles will be analogous to the "charginos" predicted by supersymmetry theory.

Charginos and the Weak Force

Charginos are charged superparticles which are linear combinations of "winos" and charged "higgsinos". "Winos" are the supersymmetric counterparts of W particles in the Standard Model. Under supersymmetry theory, the massive W particles in the Standard Model, which are bosons (or force particles), are reflected as W fermions (or matter particles) called "winos". The counterpart of the higgs particle in the supersymmetric model is the "higgsino". W particles feel the weak force.

The weak force appears "weak" in commonly observed processes but it is not intrinsically weak. The value of the fine structure constant for the weak force, according to the Standard Model, is actually larger than for the electromagnetic force. The real reason for the apparent weakness of the weak force is the large mass of the W particles which translates into short ranges which causes the weak force to appear weak. This mass limits the range of the weak nuclear force. The electromagnetic force, by contrast, has an infinite range because its boson (the photon) is massless. With energies greater than 100 GeV, however, the weak force acts with much the same strength as the electromagnetic force. At higher energies the electromagnetic and weak forces unite as the electroweak force. The weak interactions involving the W+ and W- particles act on exclusively left-handed particles and right-handed antiparticles. In other words, W particles act on (right-handed) mirror matter.

Dark Matter

A substantial proportion of dark matter is in the form of (non-standard or super) plasma. Furthermore, since these particles are massive, the velocity of these particles, and therefore, the collision rate would be less. If this is the case, then these massive charged particles should form cold dark plasma that feels the weak force. Cold dark matter allows structures to be formed.

Why have We not Detected them?

The graviton is well-established in theory but has not been observed in any laboratory; neither have gravitational waves predicted by quantum field theory. Despite the operation of LIGOs (Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory) for many years, no gravitational waves have been detected. Similarly, waves emitted by bulk matter comprising of plasmas of superparticles have not been detected by our scientific instruments. This is due to the limitations of our instruments to detect them.

Conclusion

It is postulated by Dark Plasma Theory that supersymmetric bulk matter or dark matter consists of non-standard (or super) plasma which radiates energetic waves. These postulated "super" waves or "S-Waves" are currently not directly measurable by our scientific instruments.

Copyright Jay Alfred 2008

Jay Alfred is the author of the Dark Plasma Theory (formerly described as "plasma metaphysics"). This Theory holds that dark matter is largely in the form of plasmas of exotic (non-baryonic) particles. Jay has been researching on terrestrial dark plasma (TDP) life forms, including their evolution in the dark biosphere and their habitats since 2001, in the context of Dark Plasma Theory. He is the author of three books on Dark Plasma Theory which include Our Invisible Bodies, Brains and Realities and Between the Moon and Earth which are available on Amazon online bookstores.

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